Maternal death due to COVID-19: a scoping review
HTML (Español (España))
HTML (Português (Brasil))
EPUB (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))
EPUB (Português (Brasil))
PDF (Español (España))
PDF (Português (Brasil))

Supplementary Files

Resumo (Áudio) (Português (Brasil))


Pregnant Women
Infections by Coronavirus
Maternal Death Mujeres Embarazadas
Infecciones por Coronavirus
Muerte Materna Gestantes
Infecções por Coronavírus
Morte Materna

PlumX Metrics


Objective: to map the scenario of maternal death due to infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in pregnant and puerperal women. Method: A scoping review according to the Joanna Briggs Institute and conducted by means of a research strategy in the literature available in the SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and PUBCOVID19 databases. The analysis of the material identified was carried out by two independent reviewers. The data were extracted using an instrument prepared by the authors, analyzed, summarized and classified as conceptual categories. Results: of the 231 studies found, 66 were eligible and had their results summarized in four conceptual categories: Outcome of maternal death due to COVID-19; Outcome of maternal death in the coronavirus pandemics; Maternal death by obstetric group; SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal death, health resources and social determinants. Conclusion: vigilant care, early diagnosis and timely access were necessary events to prevent maternal death in 2020.
HTML (Español (España))
HTML (Português (Brasil))
EPUB (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))
EPUB (Português (Brasil))
PDF (Español (España))
PDF (Português (Brasil))


Brigagão JIM, Caroci-Becker A, Baraldi NG, Feliciano RG, Venâncio KCMP, Mascarenhas VHA, et al. Recomendações e estratégias para o enfrentamento da COVID-19 durante a gestação, o parto, o pós-parto e nos cuidados com o recém-nascido [Internet]. 3ª ed. São Paulo: [publishsr unknown]; 2020 [cited 2020 aug 22]. Available from:

Oliveira TG de, Martins EL, Ferreira AA, Redivo EDF, Silva TF. Zika Vírus: conhecimentos, sentimentos e rede de apoio social de gestantes. Rev Enferm da UFSM. 2020;10:e11.

Pastore A, Prates C, Gutierrez L. Implications of H1N1 influenza during pregnancy. Sci Med [Internet]. 2012 [Cited 2020 Ago 22];22(51):53–8. Available from:

Trocado V, Silvestre-Machado J, Azevedo L, Miranda A, Nogueira-Silva C. Pregnancy and COVID-19: a systematic review of maternal, obstetric and neonatal outcomes. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2020;7:1–13. [included in the review]

Brasil. Espírito Santo (Governo). Secretaria de Estado da Saúde (SESA). Nota Técnica nº 12/2020-SESA/SSAS/GROSS/NEAPRI-REMI: Recomendações para prevenção e controle de infecções pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) para Atenção à Gestante e Puérpera [Internet]. Brasília (DF): SESA; 2020 [cited 2020 agu 25]. Available from:

Karimi-Zarchi M, Neamatzadeh H, Dastgheib SA, Abbasi H, Mirjalili SR, Behforouz A, et al. Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) from Infected Pregnant Mothers to Neonates: A Review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2020;39(3):246–50.

Ellington S, Strid P, Tong VT, Woodworth K, Galang RR, Zambrano LD, et al. Characteristics of women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by pregnancy status-United States. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2020; 75(11):664–6.

Xavier AR, Silva JS, Almeida JPCL, Conceição JFF, Lacerda GS, Kanaan S. COVID-19: manifestações clínicas e laboratoriais na infecção pelo novo coronavírus. J Bras Patol e Med Lab. 2020;56:1-9.

Knight M, Bunch K, Vousden N, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population based cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m2107. [included in the review]

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde (SASPS). Departamento de Ações (DAPES). Nota Técnica nº 12/2020- Infecção COVID-19 e os riscos às mulheres no ciclo gravídico puerperal [Internet]. Brasília (DF): COSMU; 2020 [cited 2020 agu 25]. Available from:

Prochaska E, Jang M, Burd I. COVID-19 in pregnancy: placental and neonatal involvement. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2020;84(5):1–9.

Zaigham M, Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(7):823–9. [included in the review]

Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Miller R, Martinez R, Bernstein K, et al. COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020;2:100118.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention. J Am Med Assoc. 2020;323(13):1239–42.

Gomes FA, Nakano AMS, de Almeida AM, Matuo YK. Maternal mortality on the family members’ perspective. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2006;40(1):50–506.

Takemoto MLS, Menezes M de O, Andreucci CB, Nakamura-Pereira M, Amorim MMR, Katz L et al. The tragedy of COVID-19 in Brazil: 124 maternal deaths and counting. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151(1):154–6. [included in the review]

Takemoto MLS, Menezes MO, Andreucci CB, Knobel R, Sousa L, Katz L, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in obstetric patients with severe COVID-19 in Brazil: a surveillance database analysis. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;127(13):1618–26. [included in the review]

Peters MDJ, Godfrey CM, Khalil H, McInerney P, Parker D, Soares CB. Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2015;13(3):141-6. / XEB.0000000000000050

OSF Registries. Maternal death due to Covid-19: Scoping Review [Internet]. Charlottesville (VA): Center for Open Science; 2021 [cited 2021 jul 15]. Available from:

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O'Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D et al. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMAScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169:467-73.

Schwartz DA. An analysis of 38 pregnant women with COVID-19, their newborn infants, and maternal- fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: maternal coronavirus infections and pregnancy outcomes. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2020;144(7):799–805. [included in the review]

Mullins E, Evans D, Viner RM, O’Brien P, Morris E. Coronavirus in pregnancy and delivery: rapid review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2020;55(5):586–92. [included in the review]

Zamaniyan M, Ebadi A, Aghajanpoor S, Rahmani Z, Haghshenas M, Azizi S. Preterm delivery, maternal death, and vertical transmission in a pregnant woman with COVID-19 infection. Prenat Diagn. 2020;40(13):1759–61. [included in the review]

Muhidin S, Moghadam ZB, Vizheh M. Analysis of Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Neonates Born to Mothers with 2019-nCoV; a Systematic Review. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020;8(1):1–11. [included in the review]

Elshafeey F, Magdi R, Hindi N, Elshebiny M, Farrag N, Mahdy S, et al. A systematic scoping review of COVID-19 during pregnancy and childbirth. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;150(1):47–52. [included in the review]

Furlan MCR, Jurado SR, Uliana CH, Silva MEP, Nagata LA, Maia ACF. Gravidez e infecção por coronavírus: desfechos maternos, fetais e neonatais – Revisão sistemática. Rev Cuid. 2020;11(2):e1211. [included in the review]

Juan J, Gil MM, Rong Z, Zhang Y, Yang H, Poon LC. Effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcome: systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2020;56(1):15-27. [included in the review]

Lambelet V, Vouga M, Pomar L, Favre G, Gerbier E, Panchaud A, et al. SARS-CoV-2 in the context of past coronaviruses epidemics: consideration for prenatal care. Prenat Diagn. 2020;(13):1641–54. [included in the review]

Westgren M, Pettersson K, Hagberg H, Acharya G. Severe maternal morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19: the risk should not be downplayed. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(7):815–6. [included in the review]

Fox NS, Melka S. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women: Case Series from One Large New York City Obstetrical Practice. Am J Perinatol. 2020;37(1):1002-4. [included in the review]

Minkoff H. You Don’t Have to Be Infected to Suffer: COVID-19 and racial disparities in severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Am J Perinatol. 2020 [Cited 2021 Jan 15];37(1):1052–4. [included in the review]

Chaudhary S, Humayun S, Akhter H, Malik N, Humayun S, Nazir S. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women: a case series. Ann King Edward Med Univ Lahore Pakistan. 2020;26(2):336–41. [included in the review]

Cabero-Pérez MJ, Gómez-Acebo I, Dierssen-Sotos T, Llorca J. Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy and possibility of transmission to neonates: a systematic revision. Semergen. 2020;46(51):47-54. [included in the review]

Smith V, Seo D, Warty R, Payne O, Salih M, Chin KL, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(6):e0234187. [included in the review]

Lumbreras-Marquez MI, Campos-Zamora M, Lizaola-Diaz de Leon H, Farber MK. Maternal mortality from COVID-19 in Mexico. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;150(2):266–7. [included in the review]

Matar R, Alrahmani L, Monzer N, Debiane LG, Berbari E, Fares J, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;72(3):521-33. [included in the review]

Takemoto MLS, Menezes MO, Andreucci CB, Knobel R, Sousa LAR, Katz L, et al. Maternal mortality and COVID-19. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2020;0(0):1–7. [included in the review]

Oncel MY, Akın IM, Kanburoglu MK, Tayman C, Coskun S, Narter F, et al. A multicenter study on epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 125 newborns born to women infected with COVID-19 by Turkish Neonatal Society. Eur J Pediatr. 2020;180(3):733-42. [included in the review]

Vallejo V, Ilagan JG. A Postpartum Death Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136(1):52-5. [included in the review]

Pereira A, Cruz-Melguizo S, Adrien M, Fuentes L, Marin E, Perez-Medina T. Clinical course of coronavirus disease-2019 in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(7):839–47. [included in the review]

Api O, Sen C, Debska M, Saccone G, D’Antonio F, Volpe N, et al. Clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy: recommendations of WAPM-World Association of Perinatal Medicine. J Perinat Med. 2020;48(9):857-66. [included in the review]

Yan J, Guo J, Fan C, Juan J, Yu X, Li J, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women: a report based on 116 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(1):e1-14. [included in the review]

Akhtara H, Patela C, Abuelgasimb E, Harkyc A. COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Pregnancy: a systematic review. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2020;85:295–306. [included in the review]

Ahmed I, Azhar A, Eltaweel N, Tan BK. First COVID-19 maternal mortality in the UK associated with thrombotic complications. Br J Haematol. 2020;190(1):e37–8. [included in the review]

Hantoushzadeh S, Shamshirsaz AA, Aleyasin A, Seferovic MD, Aski SK, Arian SE, et al. Maternal death due to COVID-19. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223:109;e1-16. [included in the review]

Khalil A, Kalafat E, Benlioglu C, O’Brien P, Morris E, Draycott T, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical features and pregnancy outcomes. E Clinical Medicine. 2020;100446. [included in the review]

Zhang L, Dong L, Ming L, Wei M, Li J, Hu R, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection during late pregnancy: a report of 18 patients from Wuhan, China. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020;20:394. [included in the review]

Barbero P, Mugüerza L, Herraiz I, Burguillo AG, Juan RS, Forcén L, et al. SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy: characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized and non-hospitalized women due to COVID-19. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020;20:1-7. [included in the review]

Cheng SO, Khan S, Alsafi Z. Maternal death in pregnancy due to COVID-19. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2020;56:117-24. [included in the review]

Khoury R, Bernstein PS, Debolt C, Stone J, Sutton DM, Simpson LL, et al. Characteristics and Outcomes of 241 Births to Women With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) Infection at Five New York City Medical Centers. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136(2):273-282. [included in the review]

Turan O, Hakim A, Dashraath P, Jeslyn WJL, Wright A, Abdul‐Kadir R. Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and maternal and neonatal outcomes of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection among hospitalized pregnant women: A systematic review. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151:7–16. [included in the review]

Pierce-Williams RAM, Burd J, Felder L, Khoury R, Bernstein PS, Avila K, et al. Clinical course of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitalized pregnancies: a United States cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020;2(3):100134. [included in the review]

Savasi VM, Parisi F, Patanè L, Ferrazzi E, Frigerio L, Pellegrino A, et al. Clinical Findings and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136(2):252-58. [included in the review]

Ryan GA, Purandare NC, McAuliffe FM, Hod M, Purandare CN. Clinical update on COVID-19 in pregnancy: A review article. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2020;46(8):1235-45. [included in the review]

Thompson JL, Nguyen LM, Noble KN, Aronoff DM. COVID-19-related disease severity in pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2020;84:e13339. [included in the review]

Campos LS, Caldas JMP. Increasing maternal mortality associated with COVID-19 and shortage of intensive care is a serious concern in low-resource settings. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99:1421. [included in the review]

Metz TD, Collier C, Hollier LM. Maternal Mortality From Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136(2):313-6. [included in the review]

Wenling Y, Junchao Q, Zhirong X, Shi O. Pregnancy and COVID-19: management and challenges. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2020;62:e62. [included in the review]

Huntley BJF, Huntley ES, Mascio DD, Chen T, Berghella V, Chauhan SP. Rates of Maternal and Perinatal Mortality and Vertical Transmission in Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) Infection A Systematic Review. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136:303–12. [included in the review]

Galang RR, Chang K, Strid P, Snead MC, Woodworth KR, House LD, et al. Severe Coronavirus Infections in Pregnancy A Systematic Review. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;136:262–72. [included in the review]

Nakamura-Pereira M, Betina Andreucci C, de Oliveira Menezes M, Knobel R, Takemoto MLS. Worldwide maternal deaths due to COVID-19: A brief review. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151(1):148–50. [included in the review]

Prabhu M, Cagino K, Matthews KC, Friedlander RL, Glynn SM, Kubiak JM, et al. Pregnancy and postpartum outcomes in a universally tested population for SARS-CoV-2 in New York City: a prospective cohort study. BJOG. 2020;127:1548-56. [included in the review]

Nakamura-Pereira M, Amorim MMR, Pacagnella RC, Takemoto MLS, Penso FCC, Rezende-Filho J, et al. COVID-19 and Maternal Death in Brazil: an invisible tragedy. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2020;42(8):445–447. [included in the review]

Fathi M, Vakili K, Deravi N, Yaghoobpoor S, Ahsan E, Mokhtari M, et al. Coronavirus diseases and pregnancy: COVID-19, SARS, and MERS. Przegl Epidemiol. 2020;74(2):276–89. [included in the review]

Remaeus K, Savchenko J, Wendel SB, Gidlöf SB, Graner S, Jones E, et al. Characteristics and short- term obstetric outcomes in a case series of 67 women test-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Stockholm, Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(12):1626-31. [included in the review]

Delahoy MJ, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, Chai SJ, Kirley PD, Alden N, et al. Characteristics and Maternal and Birth Outcomes of Hospitalized Pregnant Women with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 -COVID- NET, 13 States. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2020;69:1347-54. [included in the review]

Di Mascio D, Saccone G, Sen C, Mascio D Di, Galindo A, et al. Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with SARS‐COV‐2 infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2020;57(2):232-24. [included in the review]

Diriba K, Awulachew E, Getu E. The effect of coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV) during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical maternal–fetal transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res. 2020;25:39. [included in the review]

Joseph NT, Wylie BJ. Maternal deaths in Brazil from severe COVID-19 respiratory disease: time for a global commitment to ending health disparities. BJOG. 2020;127(13):1627. [included in the review]

Simsek Y, Ciplak B, Songur S, Kara M, Karahocagil MK. Maternal and fetal outcomes of COVID-19, SARS, and MERS: a narrative review on the current knowledge. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24:9748-52. [included in the review]

Han Y, Ma H, Suo M, Han F, Wang F, Ji J, et al. Clinical manifestation, outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 and the possibility of vertical transmission: a systematic review of the current data. J Perinat Med. 2020;48(9):912–924. [included in the review]

Ghayda RA, Li H, Lee KH, Lee HW, Hong SH, Kwak M, et al. COVID-19 and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: a systematic review of 104 cases. J Clin Med. 2020;9;3441. [included in the review]

Pettirosso E, Giles M, Cole S, Rees M. COVID-19 and pregnancy: A review of clinical characteristics, obstetric outcomes and vertical transmission. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;60:640-59. [included in the review]

Yang H, Hu B, Zhan S, Yang L, Xiong G. Effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection on Pregnant Women and Their Infants: a retrospective study in Wuhan, China. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2020;144(10):1217-22. [included in the review]

Blitz MJ, Rochelson B, Minkoff H, Meirowitz N, Prasannan L, London V, et al. Maternal mortality among women with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the intensive care unit. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(4):595–99. [included in the review]

Yang R, Mei H, Zheng T, Fu Q, Zhang Y, Buka S, et al. Pregnant women with COVID-19 and risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal-fetal vertical transmission: a population-based cohort study in Wuhan, China. BMC Medicine. 2020;18:330. [included in the review]

Menezes MO, Takemoto MLS, Nakamura‐Pereira M, Katz L, Amorim MMR, Salgado HO, et al. Risk factors for adverse outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID‐19 in Brazil. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151:415–23. [included in the review]

Silva FV, Souza KV. The unacceptable tragedy of maternal mortality associated with COVID-19: (re)politicization of women’s health and rights and the position of Brazilian nursing. Rev Bras Enferm. 2020;73(Suppl 4):e73. [included in the review]

Mostardeiro LR, Schmitt LG, Xavier JW. Coronavirus and the puerperium: a case report. J Bras Patol Med Lab. 2020;56. 2444.20200057 [included in the review]

Grechukhina O, Greenberg V, Lundsberg LS, Deshmukh U, Cate J, Lipkind HS, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 pregnancy outcomes in a racially and ethnically diverse population. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020;2:100246. [included in the review]

Di Toro F, Gjoka M, Lorenzo GD, Santo D, Seta F, Maso G, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020;27(1):36–46. [included in the review]

Sahin D, Tanacan A, Erol SA, Anuk AT, Yetiskin FDY, Keskin HL, et al. Updated experience of a tertiary pandemic center on 533 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection: a prospective cohort study from Turkey. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;(9). [included in the review]

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Array