The main goal of the herein work is to identify the main medication errors registered in the literature and discuss, in accordance with what was discovered, the strategies to avoid medication errors with the aim of patient safety. A systematized research of the literature in the Lilacs, Medline, Scielo and BDENF data base with the following descriptions: nursing and medication errors between the timeframe of 2002 to 2009. The categories brought forth were main prevention strategies and errors. The main related errors were the following:the sub-notification due to fear of penalty and retaliation; unsafe work environment and lack of communication. As preventive measurements it is foreseeable a continued education, adequate work conditions, a planned nursing assistance and the optimization of interdisciplinary communication.