AbstractAim: to analyze the practical knowledge of nurses on clinical management of neonatal pain. Methods: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study held with 20 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses of two public maternity hospitals in the city of Niterói. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed targeting the construction of thematic categories. Results: the categories found were associated with the perception of nurses regarding neonatal pain and their knowledge and actions regarding the clinical management of this neonatal symptom. It was found nurses lack knowledge of the clinical management of pain, which is not a part of the neonatal care daily routine, also being unaware of the application of rating scales for pain assessment. Conclusion: possessing scientific knowledge is crucial, as it provides required methods for neonatal care, focusing on the improvement of the quality of the health care provided and in the humanization of nursing care, considering pain as the fifth vital sign
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