Teaching methodologies in multiprofessional residency preceptory: a descriptive-exploratory study

Núbia Maria Lima de Sousa1, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes de Araújo1, Samara Isabela Maia de Oliveira1, Nilba Lima de Souza1, Izaura Luzia Silvério Freire1, Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira Góes2
1Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
2São Paulo University


Aim: to identify, analyze and classify the metodologies used by preceptors in the teaching-learning process of multiprofissional residents. Method: a descriptive-exploratory study that will involve the preceptors of multirpofissional residency in health of a maternity school of Natal, RN, Brazil. The data collection will be carried out from September 2016 to February 2017, through a technique of free association of words, using the following inducing stimuli: methodology, traditional methodology and active methodology, and by focus group from a guiding question. The lexicographic analisis carried out by the EVOC (Ensemble de Programmes Permettant L’Analyse des Evocations) software and by the content analysis proposed by Bardin will be used. The validations of categories will be carried out by three external judges and supported in the relevant literature. Expected results: provide subsidies for elaborating improvement strategies for teaching-learning between preceptors and students.

Descriptors: Preceptorship; Problem-Based Learning; Health Education.


Interprofessional health education emerges as a model of education that prioritizes teamwork, with a focus on completeness to improve the quality of care/sup>(1-3).

One of the axes of actuation of this new model are the active methodologies that motivate the learning and prepare the individual to develop skills and abilities in the investigation, teaching and management of the care(4).

In this regard, the preceptor need to have detachment and abilities so that his knowledge reach other spheres. However, part of those preceptors didn’t have a specific pedagogical training for this purpose, and, sometimes, does not know the new teaching methodology that can harm the quality of teaching/learning and negatively affect interprofessional training(1-3).

In this way, the present study is justified by the need to know the pedagogical strategies used by the preceptors in the teaching of undergraduate and post-graduation preceptory. For this, the following guiding question was drawn: how do you describe your pedagogical performance as a preceptor in the perspective of the interprofessional training of residents and/or undergraduate students?


To identify, analyze and classify the methodologies used by preceptors in the teaching-learning process of multiprofissionals residents.


Explratory and descriptive study, qualitative, to be developed in a maternity school located in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The population of this study will be constituted by all preceptors that work in multiprofessional health residency in the research field (N=100). Among the preceptors there are registered nurses, psychologists, pharmacists, nutricionists, social workers, physiotherapists and speech therapists. It will be evaluated the sample of professionals that has been working for at least one year in the multiprofessional health preceptory in the research scenario, been this the the inclusion criteria. Those who are on vacation or away by the time of the data collection will be excluded from the study. The sample will be composed by 33 professionals based on these selection criteria, corresponding to 30% of the study population. To avoid bias the subjects will be selected randomly through lottery with replacement.

The data collection will take place from September 2016 to February 2017. The subjects will be recruited after individualized prior contact, at which time the schedule for the data collection will be given. This will occur in three stages: (i) application of and instrument to characterize the subjects; (ii) realization of the free association of words technique (TALP) with the following inducing stimulis: methodologies, traditional methodologies and active methodologies. For this moment the interviwee and the principal researcher will participate and the principal researcher will record the words mentioned by the interviwees; (iii) meeting of the focus groups, with previously scheduled dates, which will include a moderator (own researcher) and a secretary, previously trained for the study, who will record the begining of each speech of the group members to help the transcription of recorded stories. Focus group will take place with a minimum of six and maximum of 10 participants and will have the following guiding question: “what methodologies do you use for the teaching-learning of multiprofessionals health residents?”. The three interview moments will take place in a reserved room at the research site.

Regarding the analysis, the data collected through the TALP will be coded, obeying the following stages: the evoked words will be typed into a text-type file, obeying the specific answers for each inducing stimulus; then, dictionaries will be elaborated corresponding to each stimulus, considering not only adjectives, but similar expressions, building a database through a spreadsheet. The validation of categories will be carried out by three external judges sellected via internet, according to Curriculum lattes, considering the experts in teaching-learning field using active methodologies. After agreement, the material will be submitted to lexicographic analysis carried out by the software EVOC (Ensemble de Programmes Permettant L’Analyse des Evocations) version 2000, which organizes evoked words by frequency and evocations average.

The statements obtained in the focus group will be treated through content analysis proposed by Bardin (1995), in the thematic modality. The interpretation of the data will be supported in the relevant literature. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under number 1.663.421.


To identify the knowledge of preceptors about teaching in an interprofessional perspective, and, thus, to provide subsides for the elaboration of improvement strategies for the teaching-learning between preceptors and residents in health.


  1. Loewen PS, Jelescu-Bodos A, Yeung J, Lau T. The Effect of Transitioning from Residency to Pharmacy Practice on Learning Style. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. [Internet]. 2014 [Cited 2016 Oct 16] 78(8). Available from:
  2. Gholami M, Moghadam PK, Mohammadipoor F, Tarahi MJ, Sak M, Toulabi T, Pour AH. Comparing the effects of problem-based learning and the traditional lecture method on critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness in nursing students in a critical care nursing course. Nurse Educ Today. [Internet]. 2016 [Cited 2016 Oct 18] 45. Available from:
  3. Reeves S, Perrier L, Goldman J, Freeth D, Zwarenstein M. Interprofessional education: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes (update). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. [internet]. 2013 [Cited 2015 Jan 9] (3). Available from:

All authors participated in the phases of this publication in one or more of the following steps, in According to the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, 2013): (a) substantial involvement in the planning or preparation of the manuscript or in the collection, analysis or interpretation of data; (b) preparation of the manuscript or conducting critical revision of intellectual content; (c) approval of the versión submitted of this manuscript. All authors declare for the appropriate purposes that the responsibilities related to all aspects of the manuscript submitted to OBJN are yours. They ensure that issues related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the article were properly investigated and resolved. Therefore, they exempt the OBJN of any participation whatsoever in any imbroglios concerning the content under consideration. All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest of financial or personal nature concerning this manuscript which may influence the writing and/or interpretation of the findings. This statement has been digitally signed by all authors as recommended by the ICMJE, whose model is available in

Received: 09/02/2016 Revised: 10/31/2016 Approved: 10/31/2016