Action research about prenatal nursing consultations for pregnant adolescents: an intervention in education

William da Silva Coimbra1, Helen Campos Ferreira2
1Salgado de Oliveira University
2Fluminense Federal University


Aim: to develop didactic material in order to obtain an improvement of education regarding nursing's prenatal consultations to pregnant adolescents. Method: this was an action research project initiated in February 2016 in the Salgado de Oliveira University, in the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected through documental research provided by the Nursing's undergraduate course Political-Pedagogical Project (PPP) and through semi-structured interviews, which will be carried out with 54 students. The statements obtained in the interviews will be analysed according to Bardin's Content Analysis aiming the construction of thematic categories. Preliminary results: based on a roundtable discussion involving five clinical education preceptors who currently work in the Family Health Strategy (ESF), and on the analysis of the current PPP regarding the topic, a gap in these Nursing's training was identified. Practical implications: applying the didactic material will help students to acquire new skills, also promoting a high quality health assistance to the pregnant adolescents, changing, therefore, the professional training offered in the institution.

Descriptors: Adolescent, Prenatal Care, Nursing, Pregnancy.


The primary care that is given to pregnant adolescents is based on the Sexual and Reproductive Health Programme, according to which the nurses, using their academic background, must learn skills, abilities and behaviours in order to develop strategies to meet this clientele.

Adolescent pregnancy still is a recurring factor in the Brazilian society. Therefore, a prenatal appointment should be an educational moment, making it possible for the teenager mother to express her fears, doubts and anxieties, also allowing clarifications and orientations(1).

The precocious beginning of puberty and the reduction in the age of the menarche stimulate the premature start of the adolescents' reproductive age. Although, in the past decade, the birth rate amongst 15 and 19 years old adolescents has dropped by 18% in Brazil, the 10-15 year old age bracket remains the same, with 27 thousand childbirths each year, representing 1% of all childbirths in Brazil(2).

The National Curriculum Guidelines for Nursing Courses are defined in the National Board of Education Resolution and in the High Education Chamber, established in November of 2001. Among these Guidelines, the Sole paragraph of Article 5 can be highlighted: " (a) the training of the nurse must meet the social health needs, with emphasis on the Unified Health System (SUS) and ensure comprehensive care and the quality and humanization of care"(3).

However, through the observation of mentored studies, it can be noticed that the student-nurses show the need for specific training and a lack of emotional maturity required to deal with critical situations that can emerge in early pregnancies. This can be seen when these students perform prenatal Nursing consultations or health education practices with adolescent mothers.


Do Nursing students receive the adequate training needed to provide prenatal consultations for pregnant adolescents at primary health care?


The objective of this study is to elaborate didactic material aiming the improvement of the education regarding prenatal Nursing consultations performed in adolescent mothers.

To do so, it was necessary to identify, in the Nursing undergraduate course of the Universidade Salgado de Oliveira (Salgado de Oliveira University - UNIVERSO), São Gonçalo Campus, the instruction offered to the students in order to make them able to perform prenatal Nursing consultations for pregnant adolescents in primary care. Therefore, the objective is to describe how students experience this instruction during their professional training.


This is an action-research, which began in February of 2016 in UNIVERSO, located in the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, where the researcher has been a professor and preceptor of Nursing students for the last seven years.

The following steps will be implemented: 1) Researcher's intentions and anticipated benefits: to educate Nursing students aiming at improving the primary health care offered to pregnant adolescents; 2) Reconnaissance of the initial thematic concern and focus: to research about prenatal Nursing consultations to pregnant adolescents in the Virtual Health Library - however PPP's documental research has revealed that, of four subjects - Family Health Nursing, Women Health Nursing, Nursing in the Care Process in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Child and Adolescent Health -, none of them has in its curriculum topics approaching the thematic mentioned above; 3) Plan of the suggested activity: After a roundtable discussion with five UNIVERSO clinical field preceptors, they pointed out the need for teaching students about adolescent prenatal Nursing consultations, taking into consideration the uniqueness of the clientele. Therefore, aiming to comprehend the learning gaps regarding this consultation, structured interviews will be conducted with 24 Nursing seventh semester students and 33 students of the eight semester of the course, all of whom enrolled in the first semester of 2016.

They were selected due to the fact they are already attending supervised internship in Primary Health Care services (UBS). Of this intentional sample (n=57), Nursing technicians and community-based health agents who are in touch with adolescent health care will be excluded, as well as the students that, during the period of data collection, were unable to attend supervised internship. Additionally, the statements obtained in the interviews will be submitted to Bardin's Content Analysis, which will subsidize the development of the didactic material. The participants will remain anonymous, as it will only be taken into consideration data extracted from the interview which is considered relevant for developing the pedagogical suggestion. This action will be implemented by the students the week before the supervised internship in the UBS. It will happen in the UNIVERSO Nursing skills laboratory, through active learning methodologies. The instructional design of this material intends to bring back Nursing concepts, practices and knowledge experienced by students during their academic training. The didactic material will be evaluated in a dialogical manner after its application. The evaluation of the student's academic performance in the training field will be done by the preceptors, as it follows a summative assessment model suggested by the learning institution.

This project was approved by the Universidade Federal Fluminense (Fluminense Federal University) Research Ethics Committee under the number 1409230, following the ethical rules of Resolution nº 466/12.


  1. Fernandes RFM. Meincke SMK, Thumé E, Soares MC, Collet N, Carraro TE. Características do pré-natal de adolescentes em capitais das regiões sul e nordeste do brasil. Texto Contexto Enferm. [internet] 2015 [ cited 2016 ago 26]; 24 (1): 80-86. Available from: DOI:
  2. Ministério da Saúde (Brasil). Saúde Brasil 2013: uma análise da situação de saúde e das doenças transmissíveis relacionadas à pobreza. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde; 2014.
  3. Ministério da Educação (Brasil), Conselho Nacional de Educação, Câmara de Educação Superior. Diretrizes Curriculares dos Cursos de Graduação em Enfermagem, Medicina e Nutrição. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde; 2001.

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Received: 04/14/2016 Revised: 09/09/2016 Approved: 09/09/2016