Problematization methodology in nursing of oncologic education: a descriptive study



Myllena Cândida de Melo1, Gisella de Carvalho Queluci1
1Federal Fluminense University



This is a dissertation for the Professional Masters in Health Education from Federal Fluminense University. Aims: To propose and implement a theoretical and practical education tool based on the problematization methodology in nursing in a Multidisciplinary Residency Program.  It is an evaluation of the possible learning strategies adopted by nursing students in the field of hospital care practice using the methodology of problematization. In it we discuss the methodology of the problematization and its implications for the teaching and practice of nursing. Methods: A descriptive study with a qualitative approach, undertaken in an oncology hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The subjects are students of the Nursing Residency Program in Oncology of this hospital, and ethical aspects will be in accordance with Resolution 196/96.
Keywords: Problem-Based Learning; Education, Nursing; Oncologic Nursing



Historically, education in the field of health has been guided by the use of traditional methods, derived from mechanistic, Cartesian and Flexnerian models. Thus, in this conservative model of teaching and learning, the teacher is placed at the center of the educational process as a transmitter of content, while the student acts as a spectator, someone who is passive and is a repeater.
We live in a so-called knowledge society that internationally recognizes the need to change educational health professionals because of their failure to meet the needs of society.  However, in order to begin this journey of transformation, we must break the solid barriers to change which are rooted in time.
Inserted into this context, the problematization methodology in nursing is currently employed in health education. This approach seeks to make professionals more reflective, become questioners and be more emancipated, able to work in teams, develop together and continue learning throughout their professional life.
Problematization methodology in nursing emphasizes the importance of building one’s knowledge from previous knowledge and from one’s lived experiences.  These are emergent properties that encourage the student to adopt a new perspective with regard to himself, to others, and to the relationship of care and health practices. In the process of teaching and learning, and in terms of the relationships being established, students can discover themselves as being both important in their own rights and as part of a whole, dipping into their existing knowledge and applying it to real life, thus engaging in significant degrees of learning(1).
Specific knowledge of a profession is built and transmitted during the exercise of professional knowledge, by being involved in research activities and professional training courses. Thus, knowledge of nursing is built on one’s daily work, and on the relationships that workers establish among themselves, and with their patients and other professionals(2).
Nursing, as a social and humanistic career, occupies a space in which different phenomena inherent to it require the nurse’s professional actions, involving the promotion, prevention, diagnosis, intervention and evaluation of the disease process. The scenarios are the most distinct possible with regard to the profile of patients and family members, to nursing and health staff, as well as the conditions regarding physical and material resources, which requires nurses to use their critical thinking skills to make decisions in the context of a health institution. Accordingly, these skills are essential for nurses when it comes to demonstrating good judgment.  It is an aspect which needs to be developed on nursing education, making necessary the use of strategies to understand the domains of cognitive, psychomotor and affective ability(3).
Thus, by bringing the problematization methodology in nursing to bear on nursing education, we aim to use methods that stimulate and enable professionals to construct teaching-learning strategies that involve learning to learn, prioritizing quality care based on a critical, reflective and creative formation, which in turn is based on the principles of Unified Health System by which citizens engage in the social, economic, political, ethical and cultural processes of the Brazilian health system.



What are the learning strategies used by nurses in terms of hospital care practice?
What are the implications of problem-based learning methodology for nurse training?



To propose and implement an instrument related to theoretical and practical teaching based on problem-based learning methodology in a Multidisciplinary Residency Program; to evaluate possible learning strategies adopted by students of a Multidisciplinary Residency Program in the field of hospital care practice, using problem-based learning methodology; and to discuss problematization methodology in nursing and its implications for the teaching and practice of nursing.



This is a descriptive study which has adopted a qualitative approach.  It is based in the National Cancer Institute, a teaching hospital of the city of Rio de Janeiro which is a national leader in Oncology. The study sample will include 15 students from the Nursing Multidisciplinary Residency Program of Oncology in 2012, in the event that all students agree to participate in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee and meets the precepts of Resolution No. 196/96, approved under protocol CAAE: 03454912.0.0000.5243. Data will be collected through reports prepared by students; through the use of a questionnaire incorporating open-ended questions, and through elements collected through participant observation. Finally, these will be examined using content analysis.



1. Aguilar da Silva RH, Rocha Junior AM. Avaliação da problematização como método ativo de ensino-aprendizagem nos cenários de prática do curso de fisioterapia. Rev  e-curric [ serial in the internet ]. 2010 [ Cited 2011 August 17 ] 5(2). Available from:

2. Rosa IM, Cestari ME. The relationship with learning of nursing students and nurses. Online braz j nurs [ serial on the Internet ]. 2007 [ Cited 2012 march 25 ] 6(2). Available from:

3. Crossetti MGO, Bittencourt GKGD, Schaurich D, Tanccini T, Antunes M. Estratégias de ensino das habilidades do pensamento crítico na enfermagem. Rev Gaúcha Enferm [ serial in the internet ]. 2009 [ Cited 2011 November 10 ] 30(4). Available from:



Project Data:
Dissertation project of the Professional Master's Program of Education in Health, UFF. Approved by the Ethics Committee from UFF, under CAAE number: 03454912.0.0000.5243.
Guidance: Gisella de Carvalho Queluci.
Mailing address:


Received: 04/07/2012
Approved: 04/09/2012