The working process of the preceptor: exploratory descriptive study


Juliane de Macedo Antunes1, Donizete Vago Daher1

1University Federal Fluminense


Aims: to describe the working process of preceptors who operate in the Nursing Residency in Collective Health course, and to identify the potentialities and limitations of the preceptor’s work in terms of the learning of the residents.
Method: descriptive study, exploratory, qualitative approach, whose scenarios are primary health units and management located in the municipality of Niterói-RJ. The subject will be the 22 course preceptors of the course, with a minimum of six months of experience, 10 second-year residents and 15 ex-resident nurses, who graduated in 2013. Will be excluded the preceptors on vacation or sick leave and residents locked registration. The data will be collected by interviews between September 2015 and January 2016, and submitted to thematic content analysis.
Descpritors: Preceptorship; Primary Health Care; Education, Nursing.



The years 1970 and 1980 marked a period of great discussion of the health conditions and modifications required in the public sector. Public policies have evolved as a result of the Federal Constitution of 1988 that culminated in the creation of the Unified Health System (SUS), strengthening the interventionist health model leading to a more expanded model based on health promotion(1).

This reformulation of the health care system proposes a reorientation of health care and of the professional practices that had operated until then, seeking to promote greater links between the training venues and the health care services.

The social context of contemporary Brazil has demanded, at the same time, the training and the permanent education of healthcare professionals to meet the different demands of the country. In this way, there has been experienced, since the late 20th Century, a revolution in knowledge, and a production of new knowledge and practices in terms of care and management. Consequently have been required of the training institutions, as well as health services, new technologies of care that aimed to certify the efficaciousness of demands of different social groups.

There are also, led by the Ministries of Education and Health, recommendations for curriculum reorientation in graduate and undergraduate courses who must invest in a critical and reflective training program seeking variation in scenarios for the training program, with the earliest possible inclusion of students in practical scenarios. In order to respond to the new training demands, schools of nursing have sought to approach of proposals that integrate the various aspects of health problems, taking into account the complexity and diversity of human beings and the environment in which they live.

In 2001, the Ministry of Education drew up and published the National Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Courses in Health.  These recommend that training be conducted in different scenarios and at different levels, including primary health care.

In Brazil, as part of building partnerships in the process of training in health, professional preceptors work with undergraduate students (interns or trainees) and with students in training in the areas of health. In this context, the preceptorship should work in terms of the dynamics of assistential-teaching supervision in specific area addressed by graduate health professionals who have a minimum of three years’ experience in a particular specialty.

Nurse preceptors of residents in nursing act as mediators on insertion in different territories, enabling the creation of an educational-trainer environment that leverages the learning process, that stimulates investigation, encourages the provision of care, and responds to the specific needs of each user of the SUS. The pedagogical activities of the preceptor should search as well, to be guided in a dialogical and reflective relationship with regard to what must prevail in terms of the respect with regard to learning on the part of the learner, and the possibility of exchanging experiences. The process of development, in this sense, should be based on the principle that there is the necessity to create b connections which encourage permeability between the knowledge and the traffic of to come and go with regards to informations(2).



How do we operationalize the process of the preceptor’s work in primary care in Niterói, with nursing residents? What are the potentialities and limitations of the preceptor’s work in terms of resident learning, according to the preceptor’s perception?



  • To describe the process of the preceptor’s work who acts in the course of the Nursing Residence in Collective Health;
  • Identify the potentiality and limitations of the preceptor’s work in terms of resident learning.



Study involving an exploratory-descriptive qualitative approach. Through field work the researchers will collect data using semi-structured interviews. Will be included as participants all the 22 course preceptors working in health units of Primary Care and in program management unit in the municipality of Niterói-RJ with at least six months of experience; 10 residents of the Course Nursing Residence in Collective Health of the Nursing School Aurora de Afonso Costa of the University Federal Fluminense (EEAAC/UFF) in the second year of the course; and 15 nurses who have completed the UFF residency in nursing since 2013; after the agreement to participate and signed the Informed Consent form. Will be excluded the preceptors who were on vacation or sick leave and residents with locked registration in the time of data collection, scheduled for September 2015 until January 2016. The data analysis will be in terms of thematic content, which will perform the following steps: reading with impregnation by the material content; exploration of the material and interpretive synthesis leading to categories production3. The project was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee of the UFF/HUAP of the Medical School, in view of Resolution No. 466/2012 of the National Health Council and approved with No. 1177984, in 10/08/2015.



1. Saraiva R, Rosas A, Rodrigues B, Domingos A, Cardoso M, Valente GSC. Intentional action of nursing education of consultation: phenomenological study. Online braz j nurs [ Internet ]. 2012 [ Cited 2012 July 1 ⑟(1):157-66. Available from: http://www.objnursing.uff.br/index.php/nursing/article/view/3518

2. Cezario JEP, Daher DV. Partnership between education and the workplace for the development of new nurses: an exploratory study. Online braz j nurs [ Internet ]. 2012 Oct [ cited 2013 Sept 5 ⑟(2):492-5. Available from:http://www.objnursing.uff.br/index.php/nursing/article/view/3955. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1676-4285.2012S018

3. Gomes, R. Análise e Interpretação de dados de Pesquisa Qualitativa. In: Minayo MCS (Org.). Pesquisa Social: teoria, método e criatividade. 29. ed. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes;2010.



All authors participated in the phases of this publication in one or more of the following steps, in According to the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, 2013): (a) substantial involvement in the planning or preparation of the manuscript or in the collection, analysis or interpretation of data; (b) preparation of the manuscript or conducting critical revision of intellectual content; (c) approval of the versión submitted of this manuscript. All authors declare for the appropriate purposes that the responsibilities related to all aspects of the manuscript submitted to OBJN are yours. They ensure that issues related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the article were properly investigated and resolved. Therefore, they exempt the OBJN of any participation whatsoever in any imbroglios concerning the content under consideration. All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest of financial or personal nature concerning this manuscript which may influence the writing and/or interpretation of the findings. This statement has been digitally signed by all authors as recommended by the ICMJE, whose model is available in http://www.objnursing.uff.br/normas/DUDE_eng_13-06-2013.pdf



Received:  08/24/15
Revised: 11/11/2015
Approved: 11/11/2015




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