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Indigenous health in times of AIDS: an integrative review

Rafaela Gerbasi Nóbrega, Jordana de Almeida Nogueira, Sandra Aparecida Almeida, Alinne Beserra de Lucena Marcolino, Juliana Nunes Abath Cananéa, Valéria Peixoto Bezerra


Aim: To summarize the scientific production published in national and international literature related to HIV/AIDS in the indigenous population. Method: Integrative review, held in November 2014 in the virtual libraries LILACS, SCOPUS, PubMed and BVS, using these keywords as a search strategy; HIV, HIV infections, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Indigenous Population and Health of Indigenous, regardless of the period of publication of these works. Results: The articles that met the inclusion criteria gave rise to two main themes: "AIDS in the indigenous population: contexts of vulnerability and risk" and "The battle against AIDS and the challenges of indigenous health." Discussion: There was a need to implement measures to control and prevent AIDS in indigenous tribes, as well as educational activities inherent to the traditional habits of this population. Conclusion: This evidence will contribute to the effective targeting of AIDS prevention actions aimed at the indigenous population.


Indigenous Health; HIV; Nursing.


Nóbrega RG, Nogueira JA, Ruffino-Netto A, Sá LD, Silva ATMC, Villa TCS. The Active Search for Respiratory Symptomatics for the Control of Tuberculosis in the Potiguara Indigenous Scenario, Paraiba, Brazil. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem [periodic on the Internet]. nov-dez 2010 [cited 2014 dec 15];18(6):1169-76. Available from:

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Sinopse do Censo Demográfico 2010. [homepage da internet] 2011 [citado em 2015 Fev 10]; Disponível em:

Ministério da Saúde (Brasil). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde - Departamento de DST, Aids e Hepatites Virais. Boletim Epidemiológico Aids e DST. 2012; 9 (1).

Karina L, Walters KL, Simoni JM. Decolonizing Strategies for Mentoring American Indians and Alaska Natives in HIV and Mental Health Research. American Joumal of Public Health. 2009; 99(suppl 1): S71-S76. [included in the review]

Carvalho NS, Cho R, Flores LP. DST em Populações Indígenas no Brasil – Análise Crítica e Revisão da Literatura. J bras Doenças Sex Transm. 2011; 23(3):142-145.

Duncan KC, Reading C, Borwein AM, Murray MCM, Palmer A, Michelow W, Samji H, Lima VD, Montaner JSG, Hogg RS. HIV incidence and prevalence among aboriginal peoples in Canada. AIDS Behav [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2015 Mar 21]; 15(1):214-227. Available from:

Hernández-Rosete D, García OM, Bernal E, Castañeda X, Lemp G. Migración y ruralización del SIDA: relatos de vulnerabilidad en comunidades indígenas de México Rev. Saúde Pública. 2008; 42(1). [included in the review]

Orellana ER, Alva EI, Cárcamo CP, García PJ, Structural Factors That Increase HIV/STI Vulnerability Among Indigenous People in the Peruvian Amazon. Qual Health Res. 2013 Sept;23(9):1240-50. [included in the review]

Santos VL, Bermúdez XP, Toledo LM, Cruz MM, Moreira E. Reflexões sobre as políticas de controle das DST e Aids na população indígena. Revista Tempus Actas em Saúde Coletiva. 2010;89-100.

Ministério da Saúde (Brasil). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde - Departamento de DST, Aids e Hepatites Virais. Boletim Epidemiológico Aids e DST. 2013; 2 (1).

Bastos FI, Cáceres C, Galvão J, Veras MA, Castilho EA. AIDS in Latin America: assessing the current status of the epidemic and the ongoing response. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2008;37:729–737. [included in the review]

Pearce M, Mehrabadi A, Paterson K, Patel S, Craib KJ, et al. Cedar Project Partnership. Gender differences in HIV and hepatitis C related vulnerabilities among aboriginal young people who use street drugs in two Canadian cities. Women Health 2008;48(3):235-60. [included in the review].

Pontororing GJ, Kenangalem E, Lolong DB, Waramori G, Sandjaja, Tjitra E, Price RN, Kelly PM, Anstey NM, Ralph AP. The burden and treatment of HIV in tuberculosis patients in Papua Province, Indonesia: a prospective observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2010; 10:362. [included in the review]

Zavaleta C, Mujica J, Ypanaqué PJ, Cueva N. Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y VIH/SIDA en Comunidades Nativas de la Amazonía Peruana: Consideraciones Culturales. Rev Peru Med Exp Salus Publica [Internet] 2007 [cited 2014 Jan 20]; 24(3):315-16. Available from: [included in the review]

Pozo JY. Promoción de la salud sexual y prevención del VIH-sida y de las ITS en los pueblos indígenas de las Américas. Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) y Asociación Mundial de Sexología [Internet] 2003 [cited 2014 Nov 25]. Available from:

Golooba-mutebi F, Tollman SM. Confronting HIV/AIDS in a South African village: The impact of health-seeking behaviour. Scand J Public Health 2007; 69(Suppl 1): S175–S180. [included in the review]

Liddell C, Giles M, Rae G. The Culture of Condoms: Culturally Grounded Variables and Their Association With Attitudes to Condoms. Psychosomatic Medicine 2008;70(4):496-504. [included in the review]

Hardon A, Desclaux A, Egrot M, Simon E, Micollier E, Kyakuwa M. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2008; 4: 16. [included in the review]

Sampaio Filho FJL, Gubert FA, Pinheiro PNC, Martins AKL, Vieira NFC, Nóbrega MFB. The life of the adolescent with hiv/Aids and self-care: a descriptive study. Online braz j nurs [Internet]. 2013 Apr [cited 2015 may 29]; 12 (1): 89-105. Available from:

Vernon IS, Jumper-Thurman P. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Native American Communities: Promising Interventions. Public Health Reports 2002; 117(supll 1): S96-S103. [included in the review]

Gava C, Malacarne J, Rios DPG, Sant'Anna CC, Camacho LAB, Basta PC. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon. Rev Saúde Pública 2013;47(1):77-85. [included in the review]

Narasimhan P, Wood J, MacIntyre CR, Mathai D. Risk factors for tuberculosis. Pulm Med 2013; 11. Article ID 828939. [included in the review]

Tseng AL. Anonymous HIV testing in the Canadian aboriginal population. Canadian Family Physician 1996;42: 1734-1740. [included in the review]

Newman CE, Bonar M, Greville HS, Thompson SC, Bessarab D, Kippax SC. Barriers and incentives to HIV treatment uptake among Aboriginal people in Western Australia. AIDS. 2007; 21(suppl 1):S13–S17. [included in the review]

Sumari-de Boer IM, Sprangers MAG, Prins JM, Nieuwkerk PT. HIV Stigma and Depressive Symptoms are Related to Adherence and Virological Response to Antiretroviral Treatment Among Immigrant and Indigenous HIV Infected Patients. AIDS Behav 2012; 16:1681–1689. [included in the review]

Baussano I, Bugiani M, Gregori D, Pasqualini C, Demicheli V, Merletti F. Impact of immigration and HIV infection on tuberculosis incidence in an area of low tuberculosis prevalence. Epidemiol Infect. 2006; 134(6):1353–1359. [included in the review]